Related, although not part of the CMR, some other initiatives and programmes sponsored by the EU or other international organisations, which share similar general objectives of the CMR have been identified. We present them at continuation.
The regional Maritime Security Programme
MASE, under the 10th European Development Fund, develops the legal and judicial system of countries in the ESA-IO region -Eastern & Southern Africa and Indian Ocean- so that they are better equipped for the arrest and transfer of pirates. The project contributes to promote peace and maritime security in the region, answering the ESA–IO Regional Strategy and Action Plan against piracy, which was adopted in October 2010 in the Republic of Mauritius.
Initiated in 2013 with an approximately €37.5 million budget, the EU supports a regional strategy implemented by regional organisations under a partially decentralised management process coordinated by IGAD.
MASE is not a CMR project.
EUCAP Nestor is a civilian CSDP operation supported by military expertise, which is aiming at strengthening the maritime governance capacities of eight countries in the Western Indian Ocean by taking effective control their territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
Two work strands have been defined:
– strengthen the sea-going capacities of the Coast Guard in Djibouti, Kenya, Tanzania and Seychelles
– train and equip Maritime police forces in Somaliland, Puntland and possibly in Galmudug
EUCAP Nestor also contributes to an exit strategy of the EUNAVFOR Atalanta through a gradual take-over of the responsibilities for maritime security by regional states themselves.
Launched in July 2012 with a budget of 23 million Euros, EUCAP Nestor’s mandate runs until December 2016.
EUCAP Nestor is not a CMR project.
Support to the Maritime Transport Sector
SMTS, implemented under the 10th EDF, targets mainly Western and Central Africa countries focusing on technical assistance actions, as well as capacity building and institutional strengthening of regional and continental organisations.
The programme’s actions focuses on the following fields :
– Port efficiency, notably simplifying / improving the regulatory framework (including customs procedures) for accelerating clearance of freight;
– Port security, by assisting Africa to implement international standards under the SOLAS Convention and the ISPS Code;
– Reducing negative environmental effects of maritime transport / port operations.
The “piracy and armed robbery against ships” sub-focus is highlighted only where it is necessary to enhance the main components.
The EDF Intra-ACP programme has three main projects: FlagPort WACAF; Marenda and IPSEA.
SMTS is not a CMR project.
2008/2014 – finished
The military framework of ATALANTA was the European Union Naval Force (EUNAVFOR), with more than 15 European contributing nations. The operation was launched whithin the framework of the EU Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) in December 2008, at the paroxysm of the Piracy’s threat in the Horn of Africa.
It seek the following four main goals:
– protection of shipping of the World Food Programme’s (WFP) humanitarian aid to Somalia and protection of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) shipping,
– safeguard of vulnerable shipping,
– fighting the piracy groups,
– monitoring of fishing activities.
Operation ATALANTA ran until December 2014 and was not part of the CMR programme.
Piracy, Maritime Awareness & Risks
2010/2015 – finished
Under the name PMAR (Piracy, Maritime Awareness & Risks), three projects have been carried out by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre to strengthen the maritime awareness capacities of authorities in West and East Africa for the long term.
The first project followed a resolution by the European Parliament on piracy at sea. The PMAR projects concerned in-depth studies and trials of technologies to build up maritime awareness, and how these tools can be used by the authorities in the regions affected by piracy. It included research to assesses the usefulness of various data sources, explore ways to integrate them, and quantify their relative contributions.
The first two PMAR projects focused the Horn of Africa (from 2010 to 2012) and on the Gulf of Guinea (from 2011 to 2013). The most recent one, PMAR-MASE, ran between July 2014 and October 2015, and included the provision of the real-time maritime situational picture of the entire Western Indian Ocean to two operational authorities, in Kenya and the Seychelles, for one whole year.
As a part of the European-funded MASE program for the enhancement of maritime security in the Eastern-Southern Africa / Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) region, it widened the scope of the maritime awareness beyond only counter-piracy.